आकृति:Infobox gallium

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Gallium,  31Ga
Gallium crystals.jpg
सामान्य गुण
नाम, चिन्हgallium, Ga
उच्चारण/ˈɡæliəm/
gal-ee-əm
उपस्थितिsilvery blue
पेरियोडिक तालिकामे नाम- Gallium
Hydrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Helium (noble gas)
Lithium (alkali metal)
Beryllium (alkaline earth metal)
Boron (metalloid)
Carbon (polyatomic nonmetal)
Nitrogen (diatomic nonmetal)
Oxygen (diatomic nonmetal)
Fluorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Neon (noble gas)
Sodium (alkali metal)
Magnesium (alkaline earth metal)
Aluminium (post-transition metal)
Silicon (metalloid)
Phosphorus (polyatomic nonmetal)
Sulfur (polyatomic nonmetal)
Chlorine (diatomic nonmetal)
Argon (noble gas)
Potassium (alkali metal)
Calcium (alkaline earth metal)
Scandium (transition metal)
Titanium (transition metal)
Vanadium (transition metal)
Chromium (transition metal)
Manganese (transition metal)
Iron (transition metal)
Cobalt (transition metal)
Nickel (transition metal)
Copper (transition metal)
Zinc (transition metal)
Gallium (post-transition metal)
Germanium (metalloid)
Arsenic (metalloid)
Selenium (polyatomic nonmetal)
Bromine (diatomic nonmetal)
Krypton (noble gas)
Rubidium (alkali metal)
Strontium (alkaline earth metal)
Yttrium (transition metal)
Zirconium (transition metal)
Niobium (transition metal)
Molybdenum (transition metal)
Technetium (transition metal)
Ruthenium (transition metal)
Rhodium (transition metal)
Palladium (transition metal)
Silver (transition metal)
Cadmium (transition metal)
Indium (post-transition metal)
Tin (post-transition metal)
Antimony (metalloid)
Tellurium (metalloid)
Iodine (diatomic nonmetal)
Xenon (noble gas)
Caesium (alkali metal)
Barium (alkaline earth metal)
Lanthanum (lanthanide)
Cerium (lanthanide)
Praseodymium (lanthanide)
Neodymium (lanthanide)
Promethium (lanthanide)
Samarium (lanthanide)
Europium (lanthanide)
Gadolinium (lanthanide)
Terbium (lanthanide)
Dysprosium (lanthanide)
Holmium (lanthanide)
Erbium (lanthanide)
Thulium (lanthanide)
Ytterbium (lanthanide)
Lutetium (lanthanide)
Hafnium (transition metal)
Tantalum (transition metal)
Tungsten (transition metal)
Rhenium (transition metal)
Osmium (transition metal)
Iridium (transition metal)
Platinum (transition metal)
Gold (transition metal)
Mercury (transition metal)
Thallium (post-transition metal)
Lead (post-transition metal)
Bismuth (post-transition metal)
Polonium (post-transition metal)
Astatine (metalloid)
Radon (noble gas)
Francium (alkali metal)
Radium (alkaline earth metal)
Actinium (actinide)
Thorium (actinide)
Protactinium (actinide)
Uranium (actinide)
Neptunium (actinide)
Plutonium (actinide)
Americium (actinide)
Curium (actinide)
Berkelium (actinide)
Californium (actinide)
Einsteinium (actinide)
Fermium (actinide)
Mendelevium (actinide)
Nobelium (actinide)
Lawrencium (actinide)
Rutherfordium (transition metal)
Dubnium (transition metal)
Seaborgium (transition metal)
Bohrium (transition metal)
Hassium (transition metal)
Meitnerium (unknown chemical properties)
Darmstadtium (unknown chemical properties)
Roentgenium (unknown chemical properties)
Copernicium (transition metal)
Ununtrium (unknown chemical properties)
Flerovium (post-transition metal)
Ununpentium (unknown chemical properties)
Livermorium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununseptium (unknown chemical properties)
Ununoctium (unknown chemical properties)
Al

Ga

In
zincgalliumgermanium
परमाणविक क्रम (Z)31
समूह, खण्डgroup 13, p-block
अवधिperiod 4
तत्व श्रेणी  post-transition metal
मानक परमाणविक भार (±) (Ar)69.723(1)[१]
इलेक्ट्रोन वितरण[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1
प्रति आवरण
2, 8, 18, 3
भौतिक गुण
स्थितिsolid
गलनाङ्क302.9146 के ​(29.7646 °से, ​85.5763 °फे)
क्वथनाङ्क2673 के ​(2400 °से, ​4352 °फे)[२]
घनत्व नजदिक गृ.ता.5.91 ग्रा/सेमी
एम.पी.तरल विन्दु नजदिक6.095 ग्रा/सेमी
विलय उष्मा5.59 kJ/mol
वाष्पीय ताप256 kJ/mol[२]
वाष्पीकरण उष्मा25.86 J/(mol·K)
वाष्प दवाब
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1310 1448 1620 1838 2125 2518
परमाणविक गुण
अक्सिडेसन अवस्थासभ3, 2, 1, −1, −2, −4, −5[३] ​(an amphoteric oxide)
इलेक्ट्रोनिगेटिभिटीPauling scale: 1.81
आयनीकरण उर्जा1st: 578.8 kJ/mol
2nd: 1979.3 kJ/mol
3rd: 2963 kJ/mol
(more)
परमाणविक अर्धव्यासempirical: 135 pm
सहसंयोजक अर्धव्यास122±3 pm
भ्यान डर वाल्स रेडियस187 pm
विविध
स्फटिक संरचनाorthorhombic
Orthorhombic galliumक स्फटिक संरचना
ध्वनि तीव्रता thin rod2740 मि/से (पर 20 °से)
तापीय प्रसार18 µm/(m·K) (at 25 °से)
उष्मीय चालकता40.6 W/(m·K)
विधुतीय प्रतिरोधकर्ता270 nΩ·m (at 20 °से)
चुम्बकीयdiamagnetic
युवा मोडुलस9.8 GPa
विष अनुपात0.47
मोस् कठोरता1.5
ब्राइनेल कठोरता56.8–68.7 MPa
सिएएस क्रम7440-55-3
इतिहास
नामकरणafter Gallia (Latin for: France), homeland of the discoverer
अनुमानDmitri Mendeleev (1871)
खोज आ पहिल अलगावLecoq de Boisbaudran (1875)
galliumक सर्वाधिक स्थिर समस्थानिक
आइसो एनए अर्धायु काल डिएम डिई (MeV) डिपी
66Ga syn 9.5 h β+ 4.153 66Zn
67Ga syn 3.261 d ε 1.001 67Zn
68Ga syn 1.13 h β+ 1.899 68Zn
69Ga 60.11% 69Ga is stable with 38 neutrons
70Ga syn 21.1 min β 1.653 70Ge
ε 0.655 70Zn
71Ga 39.89% 71Ga is stable with 40 neutrons
72Ga syn 14.10 h β 3.997 72Ge
73Ga syn 4.9 h β 1.598 73Ge
| सन्दर्भसभ

References

  1. Standard Atomic Weights 2013. Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights
  2. २.० २.१ Zhang Y; Evans JRG; Zhang S (२०११), "Corrected Values for Boiling Points and Enthalpies of Vaporization of Elements in Handbooks", J. Chem. Eng. Data 56 (2): 328–337, डिओआई:10.1021/je1011086 
  3. Hofmann, Patrick (1997) (deमे). Colture. Ein Programm zur interaktiven Visualisierung von Festkörperstrukturen sowie Synthese, Struktur und Eigenschaften von binären und ternären Alkali- und Erdalkalimetallgalliden. PhD Thesis, ETH Zurich. प॰ 72. doi:10.3929/ethz-a-001859893. आइएसबिएन 3728125970. http://www.uni-kassel.de/upress/online/frei/978-3-7281-2597-2.volltext.frei.pdf. 
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आकृति:Index to chemical element infoboxes आकृति:When on template page